Program Analysis For Vulnerability Research

4 Day Training: August 1,2,3,4

Abstract

This is four-day course trains students to do sophisticated program analysis using Binary Ninja and the Binary Ninja Python API for the purpose of vulnerability research with the goal of improving auditing processes, improving ability to identify interesting code paths, and encoding bug primitives.

In the class, students will learn Binary Ninja inside and out by extending its analysis capabilities to support a custom architecture which is difficult to analyze manually. Students will also leverage the Binary Ninja plugin architecture to identify vulnerabilities in a machine architecture independent way. After taking this course students will have experience working with the least intuitive and even some undocumented parts of Binary Ninja to create powerful program analysis tools which can be used across architectures.

Key Learning Objectives

  • Have a thorough grasp on the binary ninja python API
  • Familiarity with many program analysis concepts and common challenges
  • The ability to write sophisticated program analysis plugins unassisted

Class Outline

Day 1:

  • API and GUI review
  • Discussion of program analysis use cases
  • Turing machines, correctness, and formal verification
  • In depth Binary Ninja Low Level Intermediate Language (LLIL) review
  • Start to write a generic plugin with binary ninja PluginCommand to better reverse engineer language specific artifacts

Day 2:

  • SSA Form and its benefits
  • The binary ninja memory and address concept
  • Control flow analysis vs. Data flow analysis
  • Type propagation inside of a function context and cross function
  • Automatically recovering structures inside of a function context
  • Abstract Interpretation

Day 3:

  • Data flow analysis and tracing the lifetime of a variable or object
  • Path constraint solving using SAT solvers to determine reachability and to solve for input variables
  • Vulnerability discovery with Binary Ninja
  • Identifying "sources" and "sinks" in a program. Using taint analysis track where controlled input can reach program sinks and constraint solving to determine the boundaries of a vulnerability

Day 4:

  • Discuss bug classes, what makes certain ones easier to programmatically find and why
  • Encoding bug classes as read and write primitives, it easier to find specific vulnerability types -- such as memory corruption and incorrect usage of APIs
  • Write a binary ninja pass to find different classes of bugs for specific example targets
  • Attempt to analyze and find bugs in a 'real world' program
  • Discussion on the future of the field. How would machine learning help us determine the harder types of bugs – logic bugs etc

Prerequisites

Students should have prior experience in the basics of software reverse-engineering.

System Requirements

Students should have workstations or laptops with Binary Ninja and VMware workstation 15 Pro or Fusion 11 Pro installed with a clean install of Ubuntu 18.04.

Sophia D'Antoine

Sophia D'Antoine, Margin Research LLC

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Sophia d’Antoine is the founder of Margin Research, focusing on vulnerability research and program analysis. She has spoken at more than thirteen global security conferences worldwide including RECon Montreal, Blackhat, and CanSecWest on topics from automated exploitation, program analysis, machine learning, and hardware hacking. Her keynotes have included topics such as exploiting hardware CPU optimizations. Currently, She sits on the program committee for Usenix WiSec and have been on multiple peer review panels in the past. In the past, she has worked extensively on embedded devices and other unique architectures. Additionally, Sophia is the "Hacker in Residence" at NYU and enjoy assisting in hosting CTFs and other hacking competitions.

Her publications on automated exploitation, programmatic vulnerability discovery, and security focused compiler development are listed below. The basis for this is effort has been through static analysis, LLVM, and binary lifters, such as Binary Ninja.

  1. asm2vec: Machine Learning for Vulnerability Discovery. Jailbreak Security Summit 2018
  2. Exploiting the Blockchain: A Security Field Guide for Smart Contracts. Empire Hacking 2017
  3. Joy of Pwning. Securing Your Path 2017
  4. The Spirit of the 90s is Alive in Brooklyn: Program Analysis forMemory Corruption. SummerCon 2017
  5. Be a Binary Rockstar: Next-level static analyses for vulnerability research. InfiltrateCon 2017
  6. An Introduction to Program Analysis with Binary Ninja. CodeBlue Japan 2016, Empire Hacking 2016, Inbot: Interesting and Novel Binary Occultism Tradeshow 2016
  7. Binary Constraint Solving: Automatic Exploit Generation. CanSecWest 2016, NorthSec Montreal 2016, Hack Luxembourg 2015